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Types of purchase, according to psychology

psicología consumidor compras

We are born consumers. We spend the day us purchasing products or selling them. The psychology helps to know the behaviour of the consumer or at least try predict it, being this one of the angular stones of any plan of marketing of any company from the smallest to the biggest. And no only like companies but know to himself same like consumer will help us to choose better the products or services that buy.

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Types of purchase, according to the psychology.

The rules that employ the consumers when they initiate a process of purchase are fundamentally of two types: operative and auxiliaries. The operative are those that have relation with basic aims, the most common needs; as for example, buy some zapatillas comfortable to use every day. On the other hand  they are the auxiliary rules that do reference to the most secondary reasons that promoted the purchase, are used to to have a more social character or have a more punctual efficiency. For example, auxiliary rules of purchase would be to want to buy some zapatillas of running with good amortiguación, but as those that go out in the television that are fashionable.

Rational purchase (scheduled).

The rational shopping do reference to a process scheduled of purchase that after recognising a problem looks for his effective resolution. They are shopping based in the rationality of a wish.  This shopping scheduled look for a solid image and of good quality of the products, a price in accordance with the competition (since they study  the prices of the similar products), looks for  that the product have some terms of delivery reasonably viable and look for services of post-safe sale and guaranteeed.

For example, a rational purchase can be the purchase of a car for the family, a flat, a computer for the work, a mobile telephone, etc.

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Irrational purchase (impulsive).

A third part of the shopping that make are impulsive. On the contrary that the previous, the impulsive shopping do not comport a process scheduled. I see some zapatillas that like me, buy them although really afterwards do not give them the use expected, but were beautiful. They answer to irrational processes, the person leaves  carry by the moment, without thinking if the product is a real need with practical utility.

It is from the years 70 when the impulsive purchase grows, to the pair that establishes  a society of consumption in which no longer only does lacking to satisfy basic needs but the purchase goes back  more heterogeneous and complex with a wide variety of products, services and styles of consumption. They appear the marks and with them the symbolic purchase associated to a determinate mark. It is therefore a full purchase of symbolisms in which the cognitive criteria, the self-supervision and the emotional regulation happen to a flat second.

The strategies of marketing look for to this type of consumers constantly. For example, fix you in the products that plant  just in the box to go to pay: small products associated to others that perhaps already have bought (batteries), chewing gums or tempting products (chocolatinas) or some socks that did not need but that precisely have planted at the side of the row to pay of your shop of clothes. Everything in front of your eyes while waits in a tail to that the other pay. Some product falls in your basket.

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I do not need it, but I wish it. The majority of the cosmetic products, jewels or products no necessary make his packaging and are placed and publicitados so that they induce a wish in the buyer more than a need. All this derived of the resolution of some type of problem of emotional type.

Types of shopping by impulse.

Reactive purchase-compensatory.

It treats  of a reactive purchase of leakage in front of situations of the consumer: feelings, ideas, experiences.

The buyer looks for to find well, looks for a change in his personal state, looking for stimulating environments and reforzantes. This purchase does to increase of momentary way the self-esteem. Besides, the person does it of unaware way since it does not darse that it is a purchase made to way of emotional consolation. Momentary and compensatory whim. They are shopping that finish  justifying but do not have the sufficient real performance.

Compensatory seasonal purchase.

In this case, similar to the previous, what looks for  is to block or replace a negative emotional state: a state of negative spirit (depression), situations estresantes or anxiety. The difference with the reactive is the periodicity of the purchase and the estacionalidad being this last the anteroom of some cases of pathological purchase that it can derive in greater problems if us habituamos to her. In the purchase compesatoria uses  the purchase to escape to situations longer whereas the reactive is momentary.

Recreational purchase or stimuli.

It is the most social purchase, buy is a behaviour that involves entertainment and leisure. Go out of shopping to see people or be to the fashion.

Purchase hedónica.

It looks for the personal pleasure without looking for another type of affective or recreational need. Purchase produces pleasure, the mere fact to have a new product satisfies us. Although this can turn into a danger since it will produce tolerance and every time will need to buy more to have more things. The purchase a product is a reforzador in himself.

It buys social impulse.

It is the one who produces  because the other also make it like form of social integration. The social validation to have a product motivates us to buy it. For example, what hims raisin to a lot of buyers of iPhone.

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Pathological or compulsive purchase.

The pathological purchase presents 10 main characteristics that have to identify:

  1. Urgent or unavoidable inclination to the purchase.
  2. It exists a feeling of loss of personal control.
  3. A disequilibrium of the personal budget and/or familiar.
  4. Feeling of fault after the purchase.
  5. Need that arises of an unrest. The tension relieves  buying, that no with the purchase made.
  6. Before the purchase does not exist feeling of fault because they do not identify it or know what happens.
  7. The purchase comports pathological behaviours (fault of assistance to the work, desatención familiar, unfit schedule, problems intepersonales, etc.
  8. It is the impulsive purchase to the extreme.
  9. It produces  a feeling of alignment and weakness of the self-esteem, exists a pathological mania. 
  10. It gives him more importance to the act of the purchase that to the very that possesses  afterwards.

Difference between Impulsive Purchase and Compulsive Purchase.

In the case of the impulsive purchase the products that purchase  are of low implication and personal and economic risk, makes  without scheduling and of unaware way at most the consequence is a state of negative spirit or of malhumor and dissatisfaction. However, in the case of the compulsive purchase loses  the assessment by the price or the risk that supposes the purchase and the act of the purchase makes  of conscious way (knows  that it goes  to buy although it do not know  what will finish  buying). The origin of the purchase is the dissatisfaction and the negative humour by what the need of the purchase is to relieve a previous unrest, no like this in the impulsive purchase.


Iván Pico

Director y creador de Psicólogo Colegiado G-5480 entre otras cosas. Diplomado en Ciencias Empresariales y Máster en Orientación Profesional. Máster en Psicología del Trabajo y Organizaciones. Posgrado en Psicología del Deporte entre otras cosas. Visita la sección "Sobre mí" para saber más. ¿Quieres una consulta personalizada? ¡Escríbeme!

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