The specialties of criminology

criminologia especialidades

The criminology is the science that studies the phenomena and processes that give place to a crime or crime. The explanation of the causes of the behaviour diverted, the problematic of the criminal and the casuísticas of the victim are part of his study so much for the intervention, like the prevention of the crime and the reinserción social of criminal and victim.

Branches of the criminology

The criminology is a science  multidisciplinar that nourishes  of the knowledges of numerous social sciences that study fundamentally the behaviour of the individual: psychology, sociology, psychiatry, right, anthropology, biology, social education and the philosophy between others.

These different approaches of study give place to different own branches of the science criminológica each one of them specialised in a determinate field with his respective courses specific criminology that prepare for his corresponding professional exits concrete.


Although the criminalistic is related inside the criminology is an own discipline that would cover even more than a specific branch but that suits to differentiate in the first place of the rest. It is not the same criminalística that criminology.

The criminalistic is the discipline that has like object the study of the scene of the crime and his investigation collecting the necessary proofs for averiguar the reasons of the crime and discover to the offenders. The criminalística is more linked therefore to the police investigation of the criminal fact, that is what are used to to see in the police films. Therefore, a criminologist could be a criminalista, but a criminalista would need to expand more his studies to be able to be a criminologist.


This branch of the criminology studies the penalties and the aims that have each one of them of face to the punishment in yes by the crime committed and his function in the rehabilitation and reinserción of the criminal recluidos. It is a subdiscipline  that covers the philosophy of the society for trying repress the criminal behaviour by means of the practice of convictions by the facts made and his personal and social consequences.

Sociology of the right

The sociology is the science that studies the social behaviour of the people and groups. When we speak of the subdiscipline of the juridical sociology or of the right do reference to the study of the human behaviour in relation to the legal fields of the same: juridical institutions, juridical culture, social construction of the laws, social regulation or the relation of the laws with the social control that make.

Penal right 

In the study of the criminology is necessary to know no only the sociological and psychological appearances that make the penalties and punishments of face to a rehabilitation  but it is necessary to know how apply and execute said penalties inside the public right that regulates the State in question and the measures penitenciarias that exert  inside the centres and the measures of security privativas and fundamental rights of the prisoners.


The victimology is the study centred in the victim of the crime giving importance to facts like the relation between victims and criminals as well as with the judicial and possible system media and social movements to which has to confront  after the crime. It studies therefore the victimisation so much when it produces  by a criminal fact as by consequence of an accident.

Forensic psychology

The forensic psychology is the clinical speciality attendant of the assessment, diagnostic, treatment and evaluation of the people inside a legal field. His aim is the advice to judges and courts in judicial processes by means of the realisation of a report pericial psychological on the veracity of the testimonies and the mental state of the people involved in the process.

Inside this field would have fit the criminal psychology that studies all the mental processes, cognitive and emotional as well as the personality of the subjects involved in a crime to know better the reasons and causes of a crime.

Anthropology and biology criminology

From the point of view of the anthropology and the biology, like human beings that are, have to think the reasons and biological factors and physicists that carry us to commit crimes. The study of these social bonds with the personality and even the physical appearance to learn to identify better to the possible criminals. The genetic antecedents are a variable very to take into account since they bias to a person to criminal or antisocial tendencies out of his own control by what learn to identify these factors is a great help in the prevention of the crime and measures of rehabilitation chords.


Iván Pico

Director y creador de Psicólogo Colegiado G-5480 entre otras cosas. Diplomado en Ciencias Empresariales y Máster en Orientación Profesional. Máster en Psicología del Trabajo y Organizaciones. Posgrado en Psicología del Deporte entre otras cosas. Visita la sección "Sobre mí" para saber más. ¿Quieres una consulta personalizada? ¡Escríbeme!

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