In political psychology always has used the speech of the hate or of the fear like strategy to reach the power. More than a speech of hate, can speak of an incitación emotional to the fear that generates an answer of hate. The fear is the emotional reaction more used to achieve persuade and influence socially. The fear is the one who generates the hate to this possible external stimulus that says us that it will hurt us, that prejudices us, which will generate an answer of logical defence in front of an attack.
The scape goat: a political strategy little ethical
The problem is when this message is manipulated in profit of a concrete organisation to create this crispación general that will create a thought grupal that will extend by his simpatizantes rooting his beliefs (many times false) or influencing in the electorate more desorientado or garbled with the current situation. This is what knows in social psychology like scape goat.
What is a scapegoat?
The scapegoat, also designated like head of Turkish, is the consideration of a person or groups of people like the culprits of some type of social or economic event independently of his innocence. This unfair strategy exculpa to other participants of the events of all responsibility and focuses it in a concrete group with the intention to attract followers.
The people since the one who launches the message believes the solution to this problem that he same inculca in the society by what will achieve to attract followers convinced that his new leader will free them of the fear and terror.
Examples of scapegoat
The dictators and tyrants that have arrived when can have resorted to chivos piacular like tactics practically in all the cases known. The most known example is the Jewish community, chivo piacular of the nazi party German. Adolf Hitler used them in his promotion to the power like heads of Turkish.
The dictator Idi Amin ordered the expulsion of the Asians (existed a big colony of Indians) of Uganda in 1972 to strengthen the bows of his followers, although later it caused a grave economic recession in the country.
These two examples, represent as it extends a xenophobe and similar ideology like political instrument of generation of miedo.el case of the emigration or even other sectors like the LGTBI+ see loomed by this type of political parties that judge them and expose like heads of Turkish in his own profit.
How it builds the speech of the fear?
This construction of the fear make it through messages very direct, emotional, putting graphic examples and easily identifiable although for this have to manipulate the reality, to wake up this emotion of fear of fast and suggestive way in our more emotional part of the brain: the tonsil, which will create an emotional learning distorted and more difficult to eradicate.
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It is very common historically that radical political parties use this type of speeches for influenciar in the most vulnerable people emotionally, or that find in a desorientación ideological or in a moment of social uncertainty to carry them to his terrain.
From my point of view, the people with an emotional intelligence less developed, like sucede with the youngsters that are in process madurativo, or those people that have lower emotional control or by his education or personal situations have not developed better emotionally are clear candidates to be more easily manipulated by this type of speeches.
The uncertainty, or the fault of control on a situation that generates fear, and that blocks us or limits us in the capacity of taking of decisions is what in psychology designates like indefensión learnt. Inculcar A speech
The creation of a false national hero
The uncertainty, or the fault of control on a situation that generates fear, and that blocks us or limits us in the capacity of taking of decisions is what in psychology designates like indefensión learnt.
Inculcar A speech of fear, creates a situation paralizante in the voter that will resort to the that presents like his only saviour of the conflict, and like this is as they present the radical rights, like saviours of the situation of fear that they same generate to base of manipulations. It is as if it will generate an able hero to save to the nation dand a problem that does not exist and from here exaltar the speech.
Create speeches little ethereal and little clear-cut, since go in in details could throw deny the own speech and does not interest them that it know all the truth, use contents impactantes to wake up this more emotional side of the person and create this crispación and feeling of war with the “enemy” (or groups of collective “enemies”), using the victimisation, etc. All this is what generates this polarisation of the society.
All this ebullient through the speaker of the social networks, able to arrive to this more vulnerable population emotionally that will fall in his ideological cheat in those cases in which it do not exist a capacity of constructive criticism, of comparison of scientific spirit that tries to question of some form this message. That is the key. In this sense the radical right or the extreme right (when it justifies the violence to achieve the aims) are used to to be those that better handle this electoral propaganda.
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Why VOX has so many followers?
For example, the Spanish party VOX, is the party with more followers in social networks like Instagram, with a lot of difference. It would like me know how many people of which follow it really have read his electoral program or are conscious of the real solutions that pose on the real problems of the society.
The big part of these people only remain with the emptiest speech that attacks directly to planes more emotional of the nationalist type, nativista, conservative, etc, that wake up this false feeling that it exists an enemy that attacks us and will be missing us to our freedoms, all they tergiversado to his favour, but that really are not those that will resolve the economic problems, sanitary, social, politicians, etc.
This identification grupal sees intensified with the support of the social networks and the constant impacts in media that to his time generate an effect rebound that it increases this same speech of uncertainty and polarisation of the society, by what the people will finish falling to a side or another in his ideology, limiting his capacity of decision reasoned if they do not concern to investigate of where proceed the messages and if they are true or no.
Psychology of the communication of the speech of hate
In summary, in psychology of the communication use strategies eat:
- Create a false enemy.
- Create a saviour of this only enemy with which identify and believe in him to achieve it: create a leader.
- Build an identity of group, create a feeling of belonging.
- Use the emocionalidad, aggressiveness and this generation of fear to generate an indefensión learnt that will block the critical or constructive mentality, remaining at the expense of this leader that will save “them”.
- Avoid the complex speeches, give simple messages and easily intelligible by all. It does not interest them that the people think by himself same.
In political psychology are used to use this type of influences by part of all the parties, but historically, the parties of radical right or even extreme right are those that more try to persuade using this technician, partly by his more liberal ideology and less socially empathic, with aims to be able to and authoritarian much more marked.
An old and tyrant strategy in a world globalizado
As we already said at the beginning, this type of speech has repeated along the hour by part of dictators and tyrants to the long and width of the planet. Basically, what differentiates the movements of these times of the previous is that the society is much more globalizada and arrives to a lot of more people of way more direct with a greater impact and to his more vulnerable time.
The people receive a lot of more stimuli through the technology and the social networks, a lot of more social impacts with the difficulty that this supposes to learn to descifrar those that are real of which are fictitious, without hardly external assessment and arriving to masses a lot greater that generate emotional identity.
Look for knowledge tires: to my that give it to me all done
To his time, nowadays exist a lot of more tools of knowledge, have the knowledge at hand, to be able to support us in him to interpret better the messages, compare, criticise or consult; but no all the world does it and remains with this first message, even spreading the hoaxes through social networks without so at least bother in knowing if they are true or no.
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These messages arrive to a wide majority of people, many of them will remain it to him like real, will share it and will integrate in his ideology like true. Here it is the niche of population that will finish falling in this manipulation mediática of this type of political parties, that look for a vote in the most vulnerable people.
However, the easiest for the majority of the people is not processing better this information that receive and trust the “social validation” (if all the world follows it or shares it by something will be), the “charm” (this type falls me well, sure that it is true), or the “authority” (if it says it somebody that devotes to this, by something will be) of which proceeds to give them like good, have been or no manipulated to such end. And these are basic principles of social influence, among others.
The extremist politics identify better
The extremes are more easily identifiable, and his messages arrive more to these more vulnerable people and with the speaker of the social networks and media still identify more, by the effects of the social validation.
As it already said previously, the radical or extreme rights right are used to to be those that take more this type of strategies of social influence in his campaigns propagandísticas in time of uncertainty, as it already happened in his moment in other countries like Germany, and with good results for them like political aim, that no so much for his country.
The ideal would be to build a society with critical spirit-constructive, a strong education, a good emotional education of base and teach to the youngsters to handle the knowledge, that is the base to learn to take decisions of efficient way, was of the type that was, also political.
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Aladro Vico, And., Requeijo Rey, P. (2020). Speech, strategies and interactions of Vox in his official account of Instagram in the elections of the 28-To. Radical right and social networks. Latin magazine of Social Communication, 77. pág. 203-229. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/343320355_discurso_estrategias_e_interacciones_de_vox_en_su_cuenta_oficial_de_instagram_en_las_elecciones_del_28-a_derecha_radical_y_redes_sociales
Morals, J.F., Huici. C. (2003). Social psychology. Madrid: UNED