The psychopathy is a disorder of the personality characterised mainly by the realisation of social behaviours diverted of the norm, fault of empathy and without feelings of fault or remorse of the person psychopath. These people are used to to have an egocentric personality, manipuladora and impulsive that carries them to transgress the norms and laws in search of feelings. This ocasiona that they can go back violent and aggressive because of this fault of empathy to the victim and his invalid feeling of culpability by the facts tackled.
This problem of the behaviour at present does not find recognised like such by any classification of mental illnesses, by what could speak more than a type of personality, that is used to to relate with the antisocial disorder of the personality and that is related directly with violent and criminal behaviours.
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Classification of the psychopaths
Regarding the different typologies of the psychopaths exist diverse classifications, go to be followed the ones of the expert in criminology Garrido Genovés (2003). The personality psychopaths more related with criminal and violent behaviours could classify in 5 main types.
- Idiopathy Psychopaths (pure or primary). Individuals whose behaviour would consider an antisocial behaviour in himself same, like demonstration of his own disorder in accordance with a structure of the antisocial character.
- Secondary psychopaths (sintomáticos). Those people that are able to show fault and remorse and to establish affective relations, being motivated the antisocial behaviour by problems of another type (of type neurótica or psicótica) that it would be the primary; and his problem of behaviour would be the secondary.
- Psychopaths socializados. In this case they present antisocial behaviours, but that they are seen from the own group like normal. They are used to to be people that belong to a world marginal and have with an own subculture. They do not have deficiencies of personality put that work properly inside his context of values. In relation with the consumption of drugs, this same author differentiates go in:
- Primary psychopathy or secondary alcoholism (or other drugs). Here the people whose main problem is some disorder of personality and the demonstration of characteristic psicopáticas, that use the alcohol or the drugs like symptom of the general style diverted. It is necessary to have very clear that during the consumption of alcohol or drugs does not appear any impulse that was not already before the consumption, the drug, what does is to serve like catalyst that facilitates the expression of the antisocial behaviour. Therefore, in no case, the consumption of drugs or the alcoholism never goes to justify the violent attitude.
- Primary alcoholism or secondary psychopathy(or other drugs). They are people where the main problem is the addiction, that is the cause of the commission of the antisocial behaviours, which can carry to the diagnostic of psicopatía. The causes of addiction are very distinct to when it treats of psicopatía primary, since they do it like half of leakage and when it appears the behaviour diverted is by excessive consumption and no by underlying antisocial tendency (that it is what appears in the secondary alcoholism). To these two last types of calls them alcoholic and alcoholic psychopaths psychopaths respectively. When the main problem is the addiction the prognosis is more favourable.
To the hour of the typologies is very important to establish a good differential diagnostic where remain clear:
- Which disorders mask a psicopatía, something that sucede with the triad alcoholism, abuse of drugs and delinquency. Sucede That two third parts of the diagnostics of antisocial disorder are it also of alcoholism and one of each three is it of drogodependencia.
- Which disorders psicopáticos mask another disorder, as it can be the psychosis (hallucinations and delusiones) and the neurosis (has feelings of fault, scarce tension and is inhibited) with which does not share symptoms; and with the cerebral deterioration (where appears labilidad emotional and low control of impulses) and the narcissistic personality (autosuficiencia and singularity amplified) with which yes shares symptoms.
Types of personality psychopath according to Lykken
In the typology of psicopatía is necessary to do quotation to the classification made by David T. Lykken (2000) of the psychopathy personalities that are related also with the proposals by Genovés, according to four types:
- Primary psychopath, coincident with the idiopathy
- Secondary psychopath, coincident with the secondary.
- Psychopath desestabilizado, that can adopt a range varied of the epileptic type, type colérico, type hipersexual, type of pathological longings (taste by the risk) and type histérico (product of the excessive repression of a wish).
- Charismatic psychopath (embustero charming and appeal).
Profile of the psychopath
For resumir, six are the general elements that help to identify to a person with profile psychopath:
- Verbal capacity and personal charm.
- Magnificent feeling of personal value.
- Propensity to the boredom and therefore need of stimulation.
- Use of the lie of pathological form.
- False behaviour and manipuladora.
- Absence of remorses and feelings of fault.
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Garrido, V. (2003). Psychopaths and other violent criminals. Publisher Tirant the Blanch
Lykken, D. (2000). The antisocial personalities. Publisher Herder