Although it seem that we live in a fully developed world the current reality indicates that the social exclusion is a phenomenon in increase. One of the main reasons is the peak of the diversity inside the communities that previously did not have it so marked. The social exclusion is associated to the terms discrimination or inequality (Sánchez, 2009) precipitated by factors like the absence of equity in the elements of the social welfare, the stereotypes or negative prejudices that transform in a deal more desfavorable to determinate communities of people, many times of unaware form. The strong emigration because of the big economic crises is another factor dinamizador of these processes that require political systems and educacionales that favour the equality of opportunities.
The social structure every time is more fragmentada in which we can differentiate three different planes: the ethnic diversity, the alteration of the pyramid of ages and the plurality of the convivencia familiar (monoparentalidad, erosion model patriarcal, politics of feeble childish education, difficulties of familiar conciliation-labour).
The people can be suffering of the social exclusion in different fields: economic, labour, formative, sociosanitario, house, relational or politician.
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All these factors go to need of the support of professionals of the orientation that make interventions psicopedagógicas from an intercultural point of view that have to have some basic competitions (promotion, retention and incorporation) of face to his implantation in the organisations.
The here quoted appearances will develop to continuation more widely from an approach inclusivo, of equality of opportunities and of social justice.
Social exclusion in the labour world.
The social exclusion is a term with crowd of definitions but that all they come related with the categorisation that the human beings make of practically all the things that suceden in his surroundings. We are different, many times to simple sight, and this is what of form practically unaware finishes for classifying of erroneous form to some individuals. It is this value that gives in the classifications the one who expresses and implements prejudices, racism, sexismo and in general intolerance to the difference (Sánchez, 2009).
In my opinion, the social exclusion means the fault of equity to the hour to include in the society to some groups of people by different facts, between which fit:
- Ethnic origin.
- Sexual orientation.
- School failure.
- Inequality in the distribution of:
- Stereotypes and prejudices.
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Fields of social exclusion.
They exist crowd of fields in which the people can feel excluded, the fundamental are the quoted in the work Analysis of the factors of social exclusion (Subirats i Humet, 2005) of the Foundation BBVA in the distinguish seven fields of social exclusion:
- Economic field. Tied to factors such as the insufficient income, indebtedness, impoverishment, economy submerged and the economic dependency. Nowadays still it exists a big number of dependent women of man economically and has increased the age in which the children still depend on the income of his parents. Besides, the people with risk of exclusion will have less purchasing power because of the greater difficulties to find employment, between others.
- Labour field. The employment fulfils the basic function to contribute income to the people of face to increase his stability. It is therefore evident the grave risk of social exclusion that suffer the people in situation of unemployment or subempleo. The current crisis sees reflected in the high taxes of unemployment, mainly juvenile and in the difficulty to find new employment to the people that have lost it greater of 45 years. The precarious labour conditions is another of the appearances to take into account of face to improve. It is still evident the difference between wages between women and men, or the big difference between executive charges or of existent direction between sexes.
- Formative field. The education awards the necessary competitions for the insertion in the labour world with guarantees. Besides, the formative system has to be adapted to the needs of each community without discriminations so that it struggle against the inequalities. The free access to the education is a fundamental pillar of all society developed. When the people do not achieve to finish his studies produces the school failure Guarantee a compulsory minimum education and facilitate the continuation of the studies has to to be a priority in the educational politics. The efforts have to centre especially in the minors of 16 years desescolarizados and in the special education adapted to the people with special needs. Of not to cut across this problem with prevention will finish inside the communities excluded socially and with big problems of access to the labour market. The special education has to develop avoiding the own exclusion inside the classrooms, enabling competent professionals in these areas and installations chord that do not discriminate. Besides, I consider fundamental the education of the all the students in the awareness of these needs to avoid unnecessary prejudices. Regarding the desescolarización premature is in other cases been due to the fault of resources in the familiar breast, that force to abandon studies to begin to work, everything is well while it work , but, what will happen if you leave to work and do not have studies? Have to warn these situations, for example, qualifying professionally to the people that endorse professional experience in a field and boosting the continuous training in the companies to the workers.
- Field sociosanitario. Here the social exclusion centres in the alterations estimagtizadas socially, mental disorders, alterations of the corporal image, disabilities or illnesses infectocontagiosas that limit to the people to the hour to find work. The experience says us that these people can be fully qualified for the realisation of all type of works but that keep on being strongly excluded, many times by ignorance of the own companies. At present it exists the law LISMI that “forces” to the companies have a contingent of people with disability, taking into account that the person has to be apt for the place.“Law of Social Integration of People with Disability (law 13/82 LISMI).It regulates the obligation of the companies with 50 or more hard-working to reserve 2% of his staff for people with disability. If this is not possible the law establishes alternative measures of integration as it can be the contracting of services to companies with disabled workers.
- Residential field. The own Spanish Constitution says in his Title I, Article 47 that: “All the Spaniards have right to enjoy of a worthy and suitable house.The public powers will promote the necessary conditions and will establish the pertinent norms to do effective this right, regulating the utilisation of the floor in accordance with the general interest to prevent the speculation. The community will participate in the plusvalías that generate the action urbanística of the entes public”. The community of the people “without ceiling” follows existing in our country, some times derived of economic problems and others of sanitary problems (mental disorders, drug addiction…). Another of the residential fields is the one who affects to the plane of the access to the house in the situations of impossibility to pay the mortgage, fault of income or the impossibility to be able to access to social helps for the house. I think that the State would owe to increase his politics of reallocation of empty houses to the people with self-evident difficulties or people desahuciadas in risk of exclusion, as it is the community of the third age.
- Relational field. Many are the factors included here, mainly the familiar and social network. The families constitute the most important core for the people ace relational level but that many times sees wrapped in problems of domestic violence or of bad relations intrafamiliares. The people affected by domestic violence feel separated of the society and in consequence will find greater problems to the hour of the labour insertion. The politics of prevention of violence have to be made from the base of the basic education. This type of violence is suffered by all the members of the familiar core, from women abused, oversight of elderly or boys desamparados by his parents. On the other hand, we speak of social exclusion in the social network when it produces in people with difficulties in his social skills that do not allow him relate with naturalidad with his gathered. These people also will have problems to the hour to find work because of his fault of communicative skills. It is convenient to mention in this section also the difficulty that suffer a lot of women or families monoparentales to the hour to conciliate work and care of his children.
- Political field. Finally, we can not forget us of the political field in which we can appreciate that the own regulations of the laws by part of the Government are in occasions the causantes of the own social exclusion and other times his bad regulation or follow-up expose it to this. It is the case of the evictions, politics of employment, or social services that sometimes do not finish for arriving to the really needy people.
As we already mention in the introduction, the social exclusion is directly related with the diversity, by what the multiculturalidad forms part of this big social diversity in which we live.
“The interculturalidad or the interculturalismo as they designate it some authors, can consider like a theoretical and practical conception of universal character that attends the cultural diversity of all the societies from the principles of equality, interaction and social transformation. It involves an ethical and ideological option of personal character, a form to understand and live the social relations and a way to pose and develop the education (Lluch and Saltworks, 1996; AECG, 1996)”.
It is by this necessary an intercultural education based in the respect by the cultural diversity so that the orientadores make the interventions to attain a greater equality of opportunities. It seems therefore essential once again the education psicopedagógica that it was able to transmit these values to the other. These knowledges, skills and attitudes have to be presents in all the orientadores that have to have competitions, according to Pedersen (1994), in three fundamental elements:
- Development of the car-consciousness. Analysis of the own feelings and opinions. It seems evident that if the orientador is not concienciado with the prejudices and stereotypes will not be able to make his work with good rigour.
- Development of knowledges. It has to know the concepts of culture and interculturalidad of the people on which goes to take part.
- Development of skills. The capacity to take part, the knowledge of the technicians and his application, as well as of the necessary strategies. It is by this that the people that devote to these fields have studied trainings in social branches and educacionales (psychologists, pedagogos, social educators, social workers…).
All the mentioned previously has an educational work in the training for the cultural diversity, that does not have to to limit only to the theoretical interpretation but also to the promotion, retention and incorporation of the competitions to the society. Increase the consciousness of the people on these facts and his sensitivity. Create programs of orientation, education and of social and intercultural skills, the promotion of the emotional intelligence between the more youngsters that will be a value added of prevention for his lives, are some of the tasks that have to make and keep for the promotion of intercultural competitions in a continuous education of base.
All the people are special, independently of his gender, race, or disabilities by what owe to take these differences from a positive perspective, since the evolution involves diversity.
Conclusions on the professional orientation for the equality of opportunities and the inclusion sociolaboral.
The fields where appears the social exclusion seems that they find in his majority interrelated or exist people that suffer it in more than a field. For putting a migrant person, with a strong cultural stigma and ethnic, will have grave labour problems, that to his time will be able to drive to residential problems and these to familiar problems. It is by this that the efforts of inclusion have to centre in attaining the participation equitativa of all the individuals in all the facets of the life, difficult work but that it has to make from a perspective educacional of base, educating in values and attitudes prosociales. All the people are special, independently of his gender, race, or disabilities by what owe to take these differences from a positive perspective, since the evolution involves diversity. We have to learn to collect the positive of each person and direct it to that it explode it of the best possible way so that they contribute from his possibilities to the productive processes.
The intervention orientadora has to split of an integral training and qualified that it adapt to each one of the needs of the different groups to his inclusion in the society. No only it has to to take part on the users but on the half that allows the social exclusion, that is to say the politics of intervention, or even the media that incite to some social exclusions. It would treat to contribute to modify the unsuitable appearances of the educational and contextual frame (Álvarez Red, 1994) and to support the strengthening of the people in the society, develop them in competitions and form them in capacities to attain that they control his lives. The orientadores are agents of change that have to be in constant collaboration with the rest of formative agents (professors, parents, social institutions, etc.).
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The work of the orientadores no only has to remain in the labour insertion but also to this strengthening of the people in the educational plane since we can not us forget that a good base will be the future of better generations. The orientador has to create a complete professional project and integrate it inside the vital project of the people so that the person achieves the necessary capacities to adapt to the future changes and achieve to be the creator of his own personal career and professional, conscious of his life. The orientador professional earns greater importance like dinamizador in the integral development of the people in risk of social exclusion, because of being the most vulnerable people and with fewer resources to attain it by himself alone.
References and bibliography:
This work forms part of the activities made by Iván Hammer Martínez to surpass the subject Orientation for the Equality and the Inclusion Sociolaboral inside the Máster University in Professional Orientation of the National University of Education to Distance during the academic course 2016-2017. It remains forbidden the total or partial reproduction of this document without consent express of the author. All the rights reserved.
Álvarez Red, V. (1994). Educational orientation and action orientadora. Relations between the theory and the practice. Madrid: EOS.
Lluch, Xavier and Saltworks, Jesús (1996). The cultural diversity in the educational practice. Materials for the training of the profesorado in Intercultural Education. Madrid: MEC.
Malik Liévano, B. (2002). The intercultural approach in the organizaciones. Extract of the chapter 6 of the Educational Project – Models of Orientation and Intervention Psicopedagógica. Madrid: UNED. Unpublished.
Pedersen, P. B. (1994): To handbook for developing multicultural awareness (4th ed.). Alexandria, GOES: American Counseling Association.
Sánchez García, M.F. (2009). The Labour Orientation in contexts of personal diversity, social and cultural. In L.M. Sobrado And To. Cortés Pascual (Coords.), Professional Orientation. New stages and perspectives (Cap. 8, pp. 161-181). Madrid: New Library.
Suárez Ortega, M. (2006). Barriers in the feminine professional development. Spanish magazine of Orientation and psychopedagogics (19) 1, pp. 61-72.
Subirats i Humet, J. (Dir.), Gomá Carmona, R and Brugué Torrella, J. (Coords.) (2005). Analysis of the factors of social exclusion. Documents of work 4. Foundation BBVA. Government of Catalonia.
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