We could define the cohesion like the like the process by means of which the members of a group remain joined. Therefore, the cohesion grupal is the total field of strengths motivantes that acts on the people that integrate a group and keeps them joined inside the same.
These reasons that attain that the people seat attracted by a group can be of five types, those that more reasons simultaneously give greater place will be the cohesion grupal:
- Interpersonal attraction. They are factors like the vicinity, the physical appeal, or the reciprocity.
- Attraction to the activities that the group makes. Obviously, the people with similar interests joint with greater ease.
- Attraction to the aims of the group. In this case what joins to the group is the achievement of a final aim, as it can be win a sportive league or help through a NGO.
- Attraction of the belonging grupal. The mere fact to belong to a group is attractive, especially when it treats of pertencer to groups of greater status.
- Attraction to the rewards. This is an attraction more than instrumental type, when the achievement of an aim grupal brings achieve reward (material or no) the work in group will be more attractive.
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How increase the cohesion grupal?
They exist eight fundamental principles that have to control to achieve increase the cohesion grupal and the individuals of the same cooperate and interact more between them.
- Environment. We have to take care the environment that surrounds to the group, our surroundings has to favour the naturalidad of the communicative processes and of participation in addition to the cooperation. That is to say, if have an office with dispatches all individual without common rooms lastrará the processes of cohesion.
- Reduction of the fear. The tension in the place of work has to reduce to improve the performance. The fear is an emotion that can arrive to inmovilizarnos to the hour to cooperate, therefore have an open posture and colaborativa will help to give off of the fear to the interaction and will achieve that the individuals seat more comfortable and in harmony between them.
- Leadership shared. A formula to improve the cohesion and the feeling of belonging to an organisation of the style that was is that all the members of the group experience the capacity to lead sometime and can develop these skills.
- Training of the aim. When we work with groups, all the people that form it have to know with clarity the aim that joins them and that share. It has to exist a precise aim and secondary aims that all have to know and that besides have to be partícipes in the preparation of said aims, what will improve the consciousness grupal to a common aim.
- Flexibility. Although the aims have to follow some marked guidelines by the group, have to allow that they are flexible and adapted to the new circumstances that can sucederse over time. The norms that use to control the group do not have to be too rigid and allow that the group participate in his preparation, achievement and adaptation.
- Consensus. To attain a common agreement has to exist a style of free and natural communication that improve the interpersonal relations and avoid the conflict and the discussions. It is the best formula to create a good climate of group.
- Understanding of the process. Related with the previous, is very different the what says of the how says , the form to interpret a conversation and as it answers to the same. For this, has to loan attention to the process of work for discernir if some person of which form the group does not understand the aim to make or the work which can create conflicts by the mere fact of not comprising. Located the problem, speak it of individual way to clear the fault of understanding, clear roles inside the group, tensions between members or reduce the anxiety.
- Continuous evaluation. Especially when trabamos in tasks to half or long term with a final aim delimited in some contents of work, have to make reflections and evaluations on if you put them by which work are chords to the interests of the group. The ideal, would be that the own group decide of which way evaluate, already was by means of small test, personal interviews, technicians of dynamics of group or collective meetings.
- Elimination of negative roles. Inside the group the people will have different roles by what have to control those of court more negative, as they can be those more dogmatic based in extremist positions of the people (white or black) that did not act of form less neutral to the hour of a work grupal. Also we have to control the negative roles of sentimental court, that occupy those people with feelings found (want to and can not), for example in the world of the sport a player that believes to be a good regateador but in reality is not it. To solve it, once again have to loan big attention to the processes of communication and listens active.
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Molero, D., Lois, D. Garcia-Ael, C., Gómez, Á. (2017). Psychology of the groups. UNED: Madrid.