Negotiation is a process of interaction between several parties in order to reach an agreement. The agreement supposes the solution to a conflict or the improvement of a problem or its management. If one of the parties is not interested in reaching an agreement, there is no negotiation.
In a previous article we explained the different strategies and tactics of the negotiation process, in this we will focus on its typology.
There is no standard negotiation classification since it is not convenient to always use the same negotiation style. Every customer, seller, employee or person you deal with will be different so treating everyone equally would be a mistake.
The most important difference between types of negotiations is whether the relationship will be in the short, medium or long term; Or whether it is a timely or more durable negotiation. According to this we differentiate three styles of negotiation:
- Immediate negotiation: it is about getting the agreement possible regardless of personal relationships. It is the one that occurs in a buy-sell.
- Progressive negotiation: the personal relationship becomes important as we gradually approach the positions in a trusting environment before being fully involved in the process of the purest negotiation. This is what happens when you negotiate with a supplier.
- Situational negotiation: perhaps the best negotiation style. It is one in which the style adapts to the circumstances that are:
- Know in detail the situation you are in.
- Be aware of both your abilities and your weaknesses.
- Use the technique that best suits the situation in question.
- Ability to adapt and agility to change styles.
>> Related article: Negotiation: techniques, tactics and strategies and effective keys.
Types of negotiation according to the relation and the result.
A good negotiator will be able to transform their behavior in different situations. The most important variables to consider are:
The importance of the relationship.
The importance of the result.
Of these two variables can be differentiated five styles of negotiation:
1. Accommodative negotiation.
Has a lose / win attitude with a passive or submissive type of behavior.
The characteristics of this type of negotiation are:
- When it is important to maintain and care for the relationship above any result.
- It is governed by the following principle: a concession of “today can mean a success for tomorrow”.
- It is given when it is necessary to resolve a conflict situation.
- It is a mistake to adopt this style permanently, a person with a tendency to give in any circumstance will be perceived as weak and easy to win. This can
- happen with people whose personality is characterized by being submissive and passive.
- When it is important to prioritize the relationship to strengthen trust between two companies or people, etc.
- When one of the parties yields because it knows that it can take advantage of the effects of the accommodation and turn it into a new negotiation.
This negotiation is given when, for example, we know that one supplier is charging us more than another for a certain product but nevertheless it is the one that has served us for life and we know that there will be no problems later in the case of delayed payments.
2. Collaborative negotiation.
In this case the behavior is more assertive in the form of win / lose.
The characteristics of the collaborative negotiation are:
- Attitude of cooperation: cooperation is given, not necessarily for moral reasons but to increase efficiency.
- In addition to a good result we try to maintain an excellent relationship.
- It is used primarily for internal negotiations within organizations.
- The purposes of the parts are exactly the same, for example the same customers.
For example, when two companies purchase the same product from the same supplier to reduce transportation costs.
>> Recommended article: The 19 basic assertive rights.
3. Negotiation of commitment.
In this case also assertive conduct is imposed linked to the following characteristics:
- When you have a moderate interest in both goals and relationships.
- When collaboration is difficult.
- When it comes to situations where there is a time limit to find a solution.
- It takes agility, speed and tactical sense.
4. Avoidance negotiation.
In this case is based on avoiding lose / lose:
- It occurs when you are not interested in the result or the relationship.
- When it is convenient to appeal to mediation, justice, etc.
- When there are situations of latent conflict, if the negotiation is initiated, there is a high probability of aggression on both sides.
- When nothing can be achieved, the other party can only benefit.
5. Competitive negotiation.
In this case the attitude is to win / lose with an aggressive type behavior.
- It is usually done only once and is not interested in maintaining the relationship over time.
- It occurs when the objectives of both parties are incompatible with each other: the parties to the negotiation want to get the maximum benefit.
- Often the only factor to be negotiated is the economic one.
- Some of the parties are very aggressive in the negotiation.
- The treatment of the problem is done aggressively and competitively, but the rest of the parties are completely respected.
Other types of negotiation.
We can find different factors that change the style of the negotiation that we carry out. The most important factor is to know the importance of having a personal relationship with the people involved in the negotiation. Thus, two other types of negotiation can be broken down:
Isolated negotiation: it is a type of precise negotiation in which there is no need to establish any type of relation. Interaction with the other party is of no greater importance since it is normal not to have to re-negotiate with the person. An example of this type of negotiation can be given when buying-selling a car.
Durable relationship: type of negotiation in which the relationship is particularly important.
>> Related article: The phases of the negotiation process.