The addiction to the drugs is one of the disorders that more conflicts generate so much to the own person affected as to his familiar and gathered. The abusive consumption of drugs constitutes one of the greater problems for the public health by all the direct and indirect effects associated. However, it is a treatable disorder, that with a good therapy can achieve that the dependent person go back to recover his life and reintegrarse in the society.
The professional psychological intervention is essential to achieve the results wished. It treats of a chronic disorder that it has to carry associated a personalised follow-up and a therapeutic planning in accordance with the type of addiction and his derivative problems, by what the skilled centres are used to to be the best solution. Attend to a clinic of detoxication in Catalonia or in your community will be the first step to recover the stability of the life lost by the consumption of drugs.
Phases of the treatment to leave the drugs
The treatment for detoxication of addictions consists of four big multidisciplinary phases and differentiated: detoxication, deshabituación, rehabilitation and reinserción.
- Detoxication. In this phase the person desintoxica physically of the substance that consumed to attain achieve the abstinence under the corresponding medical supervision and sanitary. Depending on the substance can have an approximate length of 15 days and can use drugs to do it more bearable.
- Deshabituación. This part of the treatment of detoxication centres more in the psychological appearances that unchain the behaviour of consumption, his identification and replacement by other behaviours to delete the habit of consumption. All this following a therapeutic process by aims alcanzables. This phase can have a length, depending on the substances and the progress of the patient, of surroundings to 6-8 weeks.
- Rehabilitation. It is important to have surpassed the two previous phases, that in his group are used to to last surroundings to 10 weeks to give step to this phase of big importance for the patient: the preparation to restart the life. If the treatment gave the fruits wished, the person has learnt to not depending on the substance in concrete by what this phase of the treatment centres in regenerating good habits and behaviours of prevention of relapse learnt in the previous phases and that continue teaching during this period that can last several months according to the cases.
- Reinserción. This phase is related directly with the previous, but differentiates of the previous in the sense that it gives him greater independence to the patient like part of his process of reinserción in the society by what the treatment goes back more dispensary so that the person recobre paulatinamente his normality.
Know how leave the drugs goes through to know the phases to which confront us once taken knew it decision to take the reins of our life.
Evaluation and treatment for the detoxication
The model of reference for the treatment of the drogodependencias is the biopsicosocial. This model characterises for analysing the interactions between the environment and the biological factors involved in the behaviours of consumption of drugs. That is to say, part of the probability that exists that a person that consummates a substance and turn into addict to her relates three fundamental dimensions of the individual that interactúan between them:
- The farmacological properties of said substance and his effect in the brain.
- The basic psychological processes of learning and socialisation.
- The social and cultural context of the individual.
These factors will depend on the phase in the process of dependency in which it find the person, a dimension or another will have greater or lower weight on the person to continue with the consumption. For example, in a lot of cases prevails the social factor to the own biological influence of the substance on the brain.
As in any another type of clinical disorder, the evaluation of the problems with addictions follows the usual procedure (Secades, García and Fernández, 2019):
- Preparation of the clinical history. Data sociodemográficos and general, gravity of the adicció, disposal to the change, affectation neuropsicológica and other disorders. The gravity of the problem evaluates in function of seven big areas: state of general health; labour and financial situation; consumption of alcohol and other drugs; legal problems associated; personal and familiar relations; psychological state.
- Functional analyses:
- Behaviours of consumption: notion of craving. It does reference to analyse the imperative urgency that has the person for consuming in determinate situations so that they learn to identify them.
- Behaviours prosociales. It treats to help to identify the pleasant situations no associated to the consumption.
- Problematic behaviours associated. In this case they analyse the chain conductual that gives place to possible relapses and possible problems of communication that can have the person as well as examine the interpersonal relations that can be significant for her.
- Biochemical analyses. It is the most objective part of the process to know the real state of the person that attends to the help. The analyses of blood, urine or peel can use like measure to reinforce to the patient in his skills to face the wish of consumption.
- Therapeutic process. In this appearance registers the evolution of the patient and pose the specific aims for the rest of sessions and planning of the treatment in function of the results obtained through diverse instruments like forms and leaves of register.
From here, once marked the aims and known with detail the case proceeds to the treatment along the four previously explained phases in which they will incorporate diverse types of suitable therapies for each concrete case by what is complex to determine them for a generic case. Between them, it fits to stand out the motivational interviews or the training in skills and prevention of relapses, the handle of contigencias or the exhibition to stimuli.
The addicted people to drugs or substances have to be conscious that his problem is chronic and do not have to go down the policeman in any moment, following the steps of the treatment and a professional follow-up to avoid the possible relapses or, for the case to have them, know sobreponerse to time. Can go out of the drugs, recovers the control of your life.
Bibliography and references:
Secades Villa, R., García Rodríguez, Or., Fernández Hermida, J.R. (2016) Addictions to illegal Substances. In Vallejo Couple, M. To., Comeche Moreno, M.I.. Lessons of Therapy of Behaviour. Spain: Dykinson
National Institute on Drug Abuse. Advencing Addiction Science.