The neuropsychology is a scientific discipline that centres in the study of the bases neurológicas of the psychological processes such as the cognitive functions, emotional or comportamentales. The neuropsychology is a science interdisciplinar that collect the contributions of the neurology and of the psychology to know better the operation of our brain from a point of view neuroanatómico and fisiobiológico to give a description detailed that it make possible the realisation of diagnostics, evaluations and treatments of patients with cerebral damages or contribute other knowledges on our brain that contribute value to other disciplines related.
What studies the neuropsychology?
The training in neuropsychology centres mainly in the study of the cognitive functions and his possible alterations that can unchain in different neuropatologías of the nervous system (amnesias, agnosias, aphasias, etc.), for from here create technicians, tools and treatments of rehabilitation.
When we speak of cognitive functions refer us mainly to the psychological processes that allow us interactuar with the half and develop our intellectual capacities. They exist eight psychological principles basic:
From these basic psychological processes created the cognitive functions related with each one of them. The perception is the capacity to organise the data that proceed of the outside to process the stimuli that surround us. Inside the field of the attention include functions like the attention focalizada, the concentration, the selective attention or the state of alert. The study of the language covers appearances like the semantic, the prosody, fluidity or the phonology. The thought gives felt to to the information that perceive and orders it. By his part, the processes of learning are necessary to internalise new knowledges, behaviours and skills that later will become stored in our memory to be able to afterwards recover this information. The motivation commission by his part to generate the necessary resources so that the body make a behaviour to some aims. Finally, by means of the emotion are able to react to the external stimuli to adapt us to the demands of our environment.
All these functions that interact between them to achieve that the human being was functional is what treat to study lyou neuropsicólogos to know cómo produce in our brain and can comprise and evaluate better what suppose the pathological deviations and the psychic already are been due to congenital processes, illnesses or accidents with cerebral damage purchased.
The neuropsychology, a science interdisciplinar
The neuropsicólogos work of way interdisciplinar since they receive contributions no only of the neurology and the psychology but also of other branches related with the study of the brain like the biology, the chemistry, the pharmacology, etc. Además, the treatments related with the cerebral damage go joined of the work of other professionals like neurologists, neurocirujanos, fisioterapeutas, occupational therapists, logopedas or even professional of the physical education.
Neither we can forget us that the study of the brain and of as his operation affects directly to our behaviour no only covers the clinical neuropsychology, but besides it is of big interest for other distant branches to the related only with the health, as it can be the márketing (neuromarketing) or the neurosciences applied to the sportive improvement of athletes.
Instruments of investigation in neuropsychology
The neuropsicólogos use technicians based in the technology that advance and update along the years to measure that improve the computational capacities of processing of the information and the technological means. The most used instruments in the field of the neuropsychology are the electroencefalograma (EEG), the computerized axial tomography (TAG); the magnetic resonance imagings (MRI); the tomography by broadcast of positrones (TEP) and the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). All they with the aim to monitor, analyse and can see of the most faithful form possible our brain to make a map of the same that do us understand better his internal mechanism.