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The Jacobson relaxation technique

Relaxation techniques are used to control stress or anxiety. A physiological activity exceeds certain levels for long periods affects both physical and psychological problems. By relaxation techniques we are to try what physiological deactivation, so that as the physiological activation is decreased by reducing the problems mentioned hyperactivation producing reduced. It is an effect similar to that occurs once finished any physical or sporting activity involving a rest period or subsequent relaxation.

General considerations

  • Environment: it seems logical to say that the place where any relaxation technique is practiced must be peaceful, free from interruptions or noise. An average temperature and a light to be dim.
  • Clothing: comfortable, loose-fitting without elements that may hinder circulation, such as belts, bracelets and ties.
  • Positions for relaxation. 3 possible positions:
    • Lying on a bed with his arms and legs and angled slightly away from the body.
    • In a recliner, with support arms, feet and head.
    • Sitting on a chair and resting the weight of the upper body relaxed on the thoracolumbar region.

To consider…

It takes time, like any new skill you have to have patience to master it is acquired.
It can produce strange sensations, like floating sensation, tingling. They are normal reactions as are to be loosening the muscles.
Heart rate or muscle tension increased in some cases, but in most of them is just an unreal feeling, it is simply because most physical consciousness we have of beating.
It is likely that the effects take time to appear, it is normal. Learning is progressive and requires practice. Do not confuse practice with consistent effort.

Progressive Relaxation of Jacobson

This method dates back to 1929 and its creator was Edmund Jacobson and remains one of the techniques used to reduce anxiety and stress in the world. It is based on the relationship between muscle tension and psychological states of nervisosismo or high mental activity. Minimizing muscle tone, thus disabling the muscles, we can get also disable the nervous system, leading to a further sense of calm and tranquility.

Three basic skills alternating tension with muscle relaxation training:

Perceive and distinguish the presence of voltage on each of the body’s muscles.
Minimize tension in muscles.
differentially relax muscles while performing everyday tasks.
Originally proposed technique consisted of 71 Jacobson exercise various muscle groups but now simpler and brief changes are applied. The goal remains the same: to perceive the presence of unnecessary tension and reduce them while maintaining normal levels of other muscle tension

In any case, the goal is to learn to perceive the presence of unnecessary tension and reduce them, while adequate voltage levels are maintained in other muscles to perform the activity in which we are engaged.

Muscle groups

Group I: hand, forearm and biceps.
Group II: Head, face and neck. Forehead, nose, eyes, jaw, lip and tongue.
Group III: Chest, stomach and lower back.
Group IV: thighs, buttocks, calves and feet.
Practice relaxation session

The total duration of the session will last approximately 40 minutes and before we start into account the general considerations above ambient and clothing.
Later we sat in a comfortable position, if possible in a chair with armrests and close our eyes.
It’s time to forget everything and concentrate on relaxing.
We must try to stay loose, loose and eliminate residual tension we have in the body.
Once we are comfortable and focused, we can begin with the stress-relaxation exercises:

Tension-relaxation exercises

1. dominant hand and forearm: a fist and strong scrunch. Feel your hand, your fingers and your forearm tighten. Hold the tension for a moment and then opens his hand slowly as loose tension.

2. dominant Biceps: push the elbow against the arm of the chair and feel the tension in the muscle. Keep it for a few seconds and begins to loosen it gently. Focus on the difference of sensations.

3. non-dominant hand and forearm (as with the dominant hand and forearm).

4. Biceps nondominant (as with the dominant biceps).

5. Front: frowns raising it up (raising eyebrows). Note the tension on the bridge of the nose and around each eyebrow. Hold the tension a few seconds and begins to relax slowly becoming aware of these areas formerly strained. Take a moment to enjoy the feeling of relaxation.

6. Top of the cheeks and nose: wrinkle your nose and feel the tension on the cheeks, on the bridge and in the nostrils. Go gradually relaxed letting the tension disappears gradually.

7. Top of the cheeks and jaw: clench your teeth and molars like you’re biting into something very hard and feel the tension of the muscles that are on the sides of the face and temples. Relax slowly. Now adopts a forced smile, stretch lips and cheeks note how tense. Then slowly relax zone.

8. Neck: pushes the chin down, like you want to touch the chest with it. Tightens and tightens the neck and then go slowly while relaxing sensation notes.

9. Chest, shoulders and back: take a deep and hold it while you miss your shoulders back (as if trying to get together the shoulder blades) inspiration. Feel the tension in the chest, shoulders and upper back. Then slowly begins to relax.

From this moment, it is important to maintain a slow and regular breathing rhythm.

10. Abdomen: inspires deeply and tense stomach, putting it as hard as you can. Imagine that you are preparing for a blow. Now exhale and let the muscles become relaxed to get rid of stress.

11. Top of the dominant leg and thigh deep breath and put the long muscle on the leg as opposed to the back. Try leaving your seat without actually get it. Hold the tension a few seconds and gradually relax.

12. dominant Calf: a deep breath and make toes look up. You should feel the tension and then go back foot to its original position and turns while let escape the tension.

13. Dominant foot: inspires and stretches toes, turning inward and at the same time bending the fingers, but not too tense, and you could get hurt. Then relaxes muscles and note the absence of tension.

14. Top of the non-dominant leg quarters (as with the dominant).

15. Calf nondominant (q equal to the dominant).

16. Pie nondominant (as with the dominant).

As we relaxed muscles, we have to maintain that state of relaxation. It is very important that those muscles on which we have worked not stiffen again. The goal is that we can keep the muscles relaxed without prior tensing, but mentally evoking the feelings we have experienced before.

When we finish the exercises remain a couple of minutes enjoying the state of complete relaxation, focusing our attention on the pleasant and pleasurable sensations.

To end the session, they start moving smoothly, and in this order:

Legs and feet.
Arms and hands.
Head and neck.
Finally, open your eyes.
As you are learning themselves to relax muscles, sessions can be shortened and the exercises can be performed with whole muscle groups.

When completely dominate the above skills you can go to learn differential relaxation. While this task may be difficult, it is necessary to apply what they have learned to daily activities. The ability to relax muscles differentially involves knowing sense the presence of tensions in the muscles not directly involved in the work we are doing and reduce them while remaining active muscles you are using. To do this, we can schedule relaxation sessions while performing tasks graded low to high muscle involvement.

Remember to consult with a specialist or psychologist relaxation you facing in the use of any of these techniques.

Iván Pico

Director y creador de Psicólogo Colegiado G-5480 entre otras cosas. Diplomado en Ciencias Empresariales y Máster en Orientación Profesional. Máster en Psicología del Trabajo y Organizaciones. Posgrado en Psicología del Deporte entre otras cosas. Visita la sección "Sobre mí" para saber más. ¿Quieres una consulta personalizada? ¡Escríbeme!

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