Emotional Intelligence

The Wheel of Emotions, by Robert Plutchik

The emotions are psycho-physiological processes of our behavior that lead to action. They function as if they were signals or impulses that tell us what is happening in order to give an answer to resolve the situation. These moods involve a mental activity, but not only mentally but organic and speed give our thinking to adapt to the environment either by external or internal causes.

Within an emotion are complex physiological, social and psychological aspects. To explain this in a graphic way, the American psychologist Robert Plutchik (1927-2006) developed an evolutionary theory of emotions. He proposed that both animals and humans have evolved their emotions to adapt our organization to the environment.

He divided emotions in 8 basic or primary categories with clear specific functions for survival: fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, hope, joy and acceptance. The other emotions were combinations of these primary emotions to expand the range of experiences.

According to this theory, emotions vary in their degree of intensity. For example, anger is less intense than the fury and anger more intense than anger. more intense the emotion is more akin to motivate her conduct one.

Wheel of Emotions

To graphically explain his proposal, Plutchik drew a wheel of emotions, which consisted of eight basic emotions (happiness, confidence, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger and anticipation) that combined give rise to eight advanced emotions (love, submission , shock, disappointment, remorse, contempt, malice and optimism), each composed of two basic emotions. Emotions are combined to form dyads that form the advanced primary emotions, secondary and tertiary dyads that result in even less frequent emotions.

Plutchik-wheel
Click to enlarge

Joy

  • Opposite emotion: Sadness
  • Degree of intensity: Serenity → Joy→ Ecstasy
  • Primary dyads:
    • Joy + Confidence→  Love
    • Joy + Anticipation → Optimism
  • Secondary dyads:
    • Joy + Fear → Culpa
    • Joy + Anger → Pride
  • Tertiary dyads (even less frequent):
    • Joy + Surprise → Delight
    • Joy + Aversion → Curiosity

Confidence

  • Opposite emotion: Aversion (rejection)
  • Degree of intensity: Acceptance → Confidence → Admiration
  • Primary dyads:
    • Confidence + Joy → Love
    • Confidence + Fear → Submission
  • Secondary dyads:
    • Confidence + Surprise → Curiosity
    • Anticipation + Confidence → Fatalism
  • Tertiary dyads:
    • Confidence + Sadness → Sentimentality
    • Confidence + Anger → Domination

Fear

  • Opposite emotion: Anger.
  • Degree of intensity: Apprehension → Fear → Terror (Panic)
  • Primary dyads:
    • Fear + Confidence → Submission
    • Fear + Surprise → Fright (dismay)
  • Secondary dyads:
    • Fear + Joy → Culpa
    • Fear Sadness → Despair
  • Tertiary dyads:
    • Fear + Aversion → Embarrassment
    • Fear + Anticipation → Anxiety

Surprise

  • Opposite emotion: Anticipation
  • Degree of intensity: Distraction → Surprise → Astonishment
  • Primary dyads:
    • Surprise + Fear → Fright
    • Surprise + Sadness → Deception
  • Tertiary dyads:
    •  Joy + Surprise → Delight
    • Surprise + Anger→ Outrage

Sadness

  • Opposite emotion: Joy
  • Degree of intensity: Isolation → Sadness → Weigh (depression)
  • Primary dyads:
    • Sadness + Surprise → Disapproval
    • Sadness + → Regret Aversion
  • Secondary dyads:
    • Sadness + Fear → Desperation
    • Anger Sadness + → Envy
  • Tertiary dyads:
    • Sadness + Confidence → Sentimentality
    • Anticipation + Sadness → Pessimism

 

Aversion

  • Opposite emotion: Confidence
  • Degree of intensity: Boredom → Aversion → Abomination
  • Primary dyads:
    • Sadness + Aversion →   Regret
    • Aversion + Anger → Contempt
  • Secondary dyads:
    • Aversion + Surprise → Disbelief
    • Aversion + Anticipation → Cynicism
  • Tertiary dyads:
    • Aversion + Fear → Shame
    • Aversion + Joy → Curiosity

Anger

  • Opposite emotion: Fear
  • Degree of intensity: Anger → Ira → Furia
  • Primary dyads:
    • Anger + Rejection → Contempt
    • Anger + Anticipation → Treachery (aggressiveness)
  • Secondary dyads:
    • Anger + Sadness → Envy
    • Anger + Joy  → Pride
  • Tertiary dyads:
    • Anger + Surprise → Outrage
    • Anger + Confidence → Domination

Anticipation

  • Opposite emotion: Surprise
  • Degree of intensity: Interest → Anticipation → (alert) Surveillance
  • Primary dyads:
    • Anger + Anticipation → Treachery (aggressiveness)
    • Anticipation + Joy → Optimism
  • Secondary dyads:
    • Anticipation + Rejection → Cynicism
    • Anticipation + Confidence → Fatalism
  • Tertiary dyads:
    • Anticipation + Sadness → Pessimism
    • Anticipation + Fear → Anxiety

As you can see in this article, emotions are many, varied, and combined with adaptive functions. As we always say, it is important to know what and why that produces better to learn to control them according to the needs.

And you, would you know identify them?

 

Sobre el autor

Iván Pico

Graduado en Psicología (UNED). Nº Colegiado G-5480. Diplomado en Ciencias Empresariales (USC). Máster en Psicología del Trabajo y las Organizaciones. (INESEM). Máster Universitario Oficial en Orientación Profesional (UNED). Posgrado en Neuromarketing (Universidad Camilo José Cela). Técnico Deportivo Nivel II, fútbol sala (RFEF). Especialista en Psicología Aplicada al Deporte. Etc, etc...
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