Psychologists have in human resources another branch of specialization with a wide range of possibilities, from the selection of personnel, the development of personnel, executive coaching or professional orientation, among many other functions. One of the most important functions of managers and managers of human resources is the analysis of jobs.
What is the analysis of the job?
The analysis of jobs is that procedure in charge of establishing the obligations, competencies, skills and requirements that a particular job requires, as well as the type of people that must be hired to occupy said position.
With this definition it seems evident that the knowledge about human behavior that psychology contributes are of utmost importance in interpreting what kind of person and what characteristics would be best to cover a specific position. Therefore, in order to be able to choose the personnel we must know in depth what it is that we want to hire.
The analysis of jobs has a preventive character in the organization of the company with multiple benefits derived.
Many companies are not aware of the preventive nature of such actions for their economies. With the analysis of positions and the correct hiring of personnel will not only end up saving on hiring costs (and layoffs) but also improving the development and planning of the company. A correct classification of the jobs and their tasks is made. Thus, when a person leaves your company, you will immediately know what type of person you need to hire to cover your imminent need, which will make hiring quicker and more efficient.
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That is to say, through a job analysis, relevant information is obtained to elaborate the job description. This description of the position will indicate the tasks, obligations, responsibilities, working conditions, supervisory responsibilities, reports and reports and the techniques or machines used for each case.
At the same time, the position analysis gathers information about the job specifications, which are the human requirements necessary for the position: studies, personality, social skills, certifications, technical skills, knowledge, etc.
Information provided by the job analysis.
The human resources specialist will gather information on the following points:
- Work activities. It is a question of answering the following questions about the activity that takes place in the position: What is done? How is it done? Why is it done? When is made? How is it made? Selling watches is not the same as working on a car assembly line.
- Human behavior. Here what is sought is to gather data on the behaviors of the people who perform that activity. In addition, you must know the degree of work requirement (it is not the same to load sacks of cement than to work as a telemarketer). It will try to know answers to the abilities to perceive, to communicate, to compose, to decide, to load, etc.
- Machinery, tools, certifications. In this aspect, information on the most technical needs is gathered. For example, a certain machine or tool and its ability to handle it or other more intangible tools such as knowledge of the person (economy, law, psychology, sports, computer science, etc.). In addition, it should be known if the position requires certain specific certifications (food handler, sanitary certification, etc.).
- Equipment and working auxiliaries. Many jobs can not be performed on their own and it is necessary to know the needs of assistants or co-workers, operators in charge or responsible superiors.
- Performance standards. To define the job correctly, it is necessary to know the performance standards of each task. By performance standard are understood, for example, the characteristics or levels of quality, quantity, or billing that a certain task demands. This is what the managers or managers will use to evaluate the work done.
- Context of the post. Here we will try to gather information about the environment and social context, organizational, work schedules or physical conditions. For example, it is not the same to attend a clothing store with an influx of public of 10 people a day that one in which they enter 300.
- Human requirements. In this section is where you will collect information regarding training, studies, work experience, skills, etc. Information about the personal attributes for that position (physical characteristics, personality, interests, abilities, languages, gift of people, negotiation skills, etc.)
All this information will then be used in the human resources department for the recruitment and selection of personnel, for remuneration policies and compensation for work performed, training programs and internal training, performance evaluation, meet the equality of Opportunities or what is also very important: discover tasks or obligations that were not previously assigned and which can be corrected thanks to these analyzes. All benefits for business organization.
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Dessler G. (2009). Administración de Recursos Humanos. Pearson Educación: México.