Intelligence can be defined as the ability to acquire knowledge or understanding and using them in novel situations, also influences her aspects as curiosity, the level of adaptation, reasoning, problem solving, attention, memory, analysis of situations or display.
These capabilities are necessary for everyday life, where people have to analyze or take on new mental and sensory information in order to direct their actions to certain goals. However, it is not yet known exactly how they interrelate and combine these capabilities to form complex we call this collective intelligence.
Howard Gardner (born 1943), is a neuropsychologist and educator at Harvard University, who presented his theory about intelligence in his book, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences in 1993. Gardner redefines the term intelligence : defined as the ability to solve everyday problems, to generate new problems, to create products or to provide services within their own cultural sphere.
The importance of defining Gardner is twofold:
Broadens the scope of what is intelligence and recognizes that academic brilliance is not everything. When develop ourselves in this life, not enough to have a great academic record. Succeeding in business or in sports needs to be intelligent, but each field will use a different type of intelligence or better or worse, just different.
Defines intelligence as an ability, makes a skill that can be developed.
The operative word from the point of view of intelligence is “multiple”; this term being derived from research by Gardner in neuropsychology that suggest the presence of areas in the human brain that correspond, at least approximately, to certain areas of cognition.
In neuropsychological investigations Gardner the presence of areas in the human brain that correspond to certain areas of cognition, at least about suggested. This fact the word that comes to define the different types of intelligences is “multiple”.
8 types of multiple intelligences Gardner.
Is complex clearly define which areas of the brain of each intelligence are but there is some consensus that each can express a different form of intelligence. Thus, Gardner differentiated between 8 types of multiple intelligences:
- Logical-mathematical intelligence. It is the ability to use numbers effectively and to reason properly. It includes sensitivity to logical patterns and relationships, statements and propositions, functions and other related abstractions. It corresponds to the way of thinking of the logical hemisphere and what Western culture has always considered the only intelligence.
- Linguistic intelligence. It is the ability to use words effectively, orally or in writing. It includes the ability to use syntax, phonetics, semantics and pragmatic uses of language (rhetoric, mnemonic, explanation and metalanguage). Uses both hemispheres.
- Body-kinesthetic intelligence. It is the ability to use the whole body in the expression of ideas and feelings, and ease of use of the hands to transform elements. It includes coordination skills, dexterity, balance, flexibility, strength and speed, as well as kinesthetic ability and perception of dimensions and volumes. As it is also the ability to use one’s body to perform activities or solve problems.
- Spatial intelligence. Is the ability to think in three dimensions. It allows to perceive external and internal images, recreate, transform or modify them through space or make objects it flown and produce or decode graphic information. It is to form a mental model of the world in three dimensions.
- Musical intelligence. Musical intelligence is the ability to perceive, discriminate, transform and express musical forms. It includes sensitivity to rhythm, tone and timbre.
Naturalist intelligence. It is the ability to distinguish, classify and use environmental elements, objects, animals or plants. Both urban and suburban or rural environment. It includes the skills of observation, experimentation, reflection and questioning of our environment.
- Intrapersonal intelligence. It is the ability to build precise about himself and organize and lead their own life a perception. It includes self-discipline, self-understanding and self-esteem.
- Interpersonal intelligence. It is based on the ability to perceive differences in others, particularly contrasted in their moods, motivations, intentions and temperament.
The eight intelligences are used in greater or lesser extent, that is pure and there is no single type, as if there could not function as human beings.
Of the eight types of intelligence that tells us about Howard Gardner, two relate to our ability to understand human emotions: interpersonal and intrapersonal and therefore deserve special mention.
As already said, it is the ability to build precise about himself and organize and lead their own life a perception. It includes self-discipline, self-understanding and self-esteem. It enables us to form an accurate model and true to ourselves and to use that model efficiently in our lives.
Intrapersonal intelligence is based on three core capabilities:
The ability to perceive emotions: know and control our emotions is essential to lead a fulfilling life. Without feeling emotions it is impossible to make decisions. To understand and control our emotions there are three steps: 1. Realize when we feel; 2nd Learn to identify and differentiate; 3rd assess their intensity.
The ability to control one’s emotions: once detected have to control them. Control our feelings implies, once we detected and identified, be able to reflect on them. Different causes require different responses and merely reflect on the origin of my reaction, it helps me control it.
The ability to motivate yourself: It’s what allows us to (physical or mental) effort, not because we require, but because we want to. Therefore, to develop the ability to motivate ourselves, we must first learn to set goals we want to achieve.
A goal is not the same as a wish. The objectives are the results we want to achieve as a result of our activity. Once we have our goal we need an action plan, knowing the steps to take include know our strengths and weaknesses, know when we need help and when not. Ie true form a mental model of self.
It is based on the ability to perceive differences in others, particularly contrasted in their moods, motivations, intentions and temperament.
There are two capabilities that interpersonal intelligence is based:
Empathy: it is the set of capabilities that can recognize and understand the emotions of others, their motivations and the reasons for their behavior. It is built on self-awareness. The more open you are to the emotions, skillful will interpret feelings. In order to understand the other and enter his world must learn to put in place, learn to think like him. Whereupon, empathy does require a temporary suspension of the world itself, the own way of seeing things. One of the basic skills to understand the other is that of listening. Learning to cartoning supposed to focus all attention to the other and stop thinking about what it means or what it could do.
The ability to handle interpersonal relationships: when you understand the other, their thinking, their motivations and feelings, you can choose the most appropriate way to present our message. The same thing can be said in many ways. Knowing how to choose the right way and the right time is the mark of great communicator. The ability to communicate is to organize groups, negotiate and establish personal connections.
Extra: Emotional Intelligence
It is not within the 8 multiple intelligences mentioned but is derived from them, mainly from the intrapersonal and interpersonal. Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognize our own feelings and those of others, for motivating and managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships. Emotional intelligence is the ability to monitor and regulate their own and others feelings for use as guide thought and action. By emotional intelligence we determine our potential to learn practical skills.
Emotional intelligence combines cognition and affection, states of mind, making us see that they are inseparable and act together in our lives.
Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences